The Discalced Carmelite Friars are the keepers of the seeds that they have been using since 1710 for the cultivation of traditional Melissa Moldova and they distill the essential oil from the fresh plant. The extraction is very complex: at least 16 quintals of Melissa Moldova are used to get a single liter. The double distillation in a stream of steam from the aerial parts of the plant enhances and characterizes the essential oil. Studies on its composition and properties have gone lost throughout the centuries but with the growing interest of the scientific community in natural products, this knowledge is now published in leading scientific journals. Research worldwide (from Japan to Finland) has contributed greatly to the identification of the Essential Oil of Melissa Moldova.